On May 17, over 100 railway officers, some retired, mostly serving, assembled at the magnificent building of South Eastern Railway on the bank of the Hooghly river in Kolkata. The officers had several things in common: they were all from IRTS (Indian Railway Traffic Service) stream, had served the undivided South Eastern Railway (SER) and some even its predecessor Bengal Nagpur Railway (BNR) and all of them are emotionally attached to the glorious past of BNR/SER. The oldest among those present was nonagenarian Peter Impett, a 1948 batch officer. There was a prelude to it. While through the freight information papers on January 21, G.K. Mohanty, Chief Operations Manager (COM) of SER, was pleasantly surprised to note that the previous day, the three zonal railways — SER, East Coast Railway (ECoR) and South East Central Railway (SECR) — each had loaded more than 6,000 eight-wheeler wagons. In other words, these three zonal railways together, all parts of undivided SER, had handled more than 18,000 (8W) wagons, which, he felt, called for celebration. Mohanty called his counterparts, B.K. Joshi in SECR and G.D. Brahma in ECoR and they congratulated each other. All three had served undivided SER.
BLAST FROM THE PAST
From April 1, 2003, two new zonal railways, ECoR with headquarters in Bhubaneswar and SECR (Bilaspur), came into being. ECoR and SECR were carved out of the areas served by SER, till the previous day. As on March 31, 2003, undivided SER handled a revenue earning freight of 201.6 million tons. After 10 years, SER, ECoR and SECR together handled a little more than 409 mt, comprising 133.41 mt by ECoR, 124.61 mt by SER and 151.57 mt by SECR.
In 1989-90, SER had crossed 100 mt of freight traffic and it took another 13 years to double the figure to reach the level of 201.6 mt in 2002-03. However, the throughput of 409 mt was achieved by SER, ECoR and SECR together in 10 years. The question being asked is: could SER, if it had remained undivided, double the freight throughput in 10 years? Most certainly, was the view of many present at May 17 event. In fact, some felt, SER perhaps could have achieved even more. The single most significant feature of undivided SER’s freight movement was that over 80 per cent of its traffic originated and terminated within its own system.
To many, SER is still known as BNR which was registered as a company in 1887 with the office in London. T.R. Wynne was the Agent and Chief Engineer in India and Robert Miller the Chairman. By the time, Wynne joined the Railway Board as its Chairman in 1905, BNR was already on a firm footing. Wynne became the Director of Indian Railway Companies in 1908, a position he held till 1914. He came back to BNR in 1914 as its Managing Director and continued till 1939. BNR, taken over by the Government in 1944, became SER in 1955. From 1887 to March 31, 2003, BNR, and its successor SER, strode like a colossus in the country’s rail transportation scene. It was the largest freight loading zonal railway, covering seven States and handling the largest volumes of both coal and iron ore. Till 1976-77, the shares of coal and iron ore in SER’s total traffic volume were more or less the same. In fact, the share of coal was slightly less than that of iron ore. The coal share started rising from 1977-78 onward when thrust was laid on open cast mines as a means to boost coal production. After trifurcation, SER became an iron ore centric zonal railway as the major coal loading areas, which were earlier served by it, came under ECoR and SECR.
TO ITS CREDIT
Both BNR and, subsequently, SER had other attributes not known to many. Visakhapatnam port was constructed by BNR between 1927 and 1933 and operated by it till 1935 and again by BNR/SER for 10 years from 1946 to 1956. The Raipur-Vijayanagram line was opened in December 1931 after the construction of the Titlagarh-Theruvelli section, which complemented the movement of port traffic.
BNR/SER also had the distinction of running two top-class hotels, one at Puri and the other at Ranchi, which no other zonal railway can claim to have. Also, a letter from the agent of BNR to Tata Sons, as early as 1916, only confirms that Tisco’s plant at Jamshedpur (then Kalimati) virtually survived on regular transportation of iron ore, coal and other materials to the plant by BNR.
Yet, BNR lost its identity immediately after Independence, when the country’s railway system was reorganised. N. Gopal Swami Iyengar, the then Minister of Railways, brought BNR under Eastern Railway, which was formed in April 1952. However, it was soon felt that BNR must have a separate identity as before. Thus, SER was born in August 1955.
SER has many firsts to its credit and these include introduction of special stock circuit and internal circuit, CC+2,long haul rakes, engine on load, CC rakes and new design wagons, among others.
Bengal Nagpur Railway
The Bengal Nagpur Railway was one of the companies which pioneered development of the railways in eastern and central India. It was succeeded first by Eastern Railway and subsequently by South Eastern Railway.
The opening of the Mumbai-Thane line in 1853 marked the beginning of railways in India. Extension of the railways was set off throughout the country. On the north-eastern side of Mumbai, the Great Indian Peninsular Railway line was extended up to Bhusawal and then split in two. While one track lead to Nagpur, the other to Jabalpur to connect with the East Indian Railway line from Allahabad to Jabalpur, thereby connecting Mumbai and Kolkata. The great famine of 1878 provided an opportunity for the construction of 150 km long meter gauge link called the Nagpur Chhattisgarh Railway in 1882 connecting Nagpur with Rajnandgaon.
The Nagpur Chattisgarh Railway was owned by the Great Indian Peninsular Railway. Bengal Nagpur Railway was formed in 1887. The Nagpur Chhattisgarh Railway was purchased from Great Indian Peninsula Railway by Bengal Nagpur Railway in 1888, and was converted to broad gauge.
The Bengal Nagpur Railway was formed for the purpose of upgrading the Nagpur Chhattisgarh Line and then extending it via Bilaspur to Asansol, in order to develop a shorter Howrah-Mumbai route than the one via Allahabad. The Bengal Nagpur Railway main line from Nagpur to Asansol was opened for goods traffic on 1 February 1891. It was only after Kharagpur was linked from the west and the south that it was connected to Howrah in 1900.
The civil engineer Lt Col Arthur John Barry was the Executive Engineer in charge of the construction of the bridge over the Damuda River and the work of the Damuda district of the Bengal-Nagpur Railway, of which he was afterwards Superintending Engineer of the Bengal section.
Linking Howrah with Mumbai and Chennai
Although Bengal Nagpur Railway was not a part of original design to connect major points in the subcontinent with a network of railways, it was instrumental in developing a shorter, and hence more popular, route from Howrah to Mumbai and the trunk route from Howrah to Chennai.
The Bengal Nagpur Railway was nationalized in 1944. Eastern Railway was formed on 14 April 1952 with the portion of East Indian Railway Company east of Mughalsarai and the Bengal Nagpur Railway.In 1955, South Eastern Railway was carved out of Eastern Railway. It comprised lines mostly operated by BNR earlier. Amongst the new zones started in April 2003 were East Coast Railway and South East Central Railway. Both these railways were carved out of South Eastern Railway.
– from RailNews Special Correspondent (Photo Courtesy – KVK collection)